Chapter 11

  1. Speed, Reminiscences, 26-28.

    From the text: “After granting the request of two women for the release of their men, who had been imprisoned for resisting the draft, Lincoln said, ‘Now, ladies, you can go. Your son, madam, and your husband, madam, is free.’ Seeing how tired Lincoln looked, Speed commented, “Such a scene as I have just witnessed is enough to make you nervous.” Lincoln replied, “How much you are mistaken. I have made two people happy to-day. That young woman is a counterfeit, but the old woman is a true mother.”

  2. Turner and Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln, 296.

    “It was always, music in my ears, both before and after our marriage when my husband, told me, that I was the only one, he had ever thought of, or cared for. It will solace me to the grave.”

    A slightly more complete quote from a letter by Mary Lincoln addressed to Mary Jane Welles, December 6, 1865, reads: "We were engaged and greatly attached to each other, two years before we were married.   It was always, music in my ears, both before and after our marriage, when my husband, told me, that I was the only one, he had ever thought of, or cared for.   It will solace me to the grave and when I again rest by his side, I will be comforted."

  3. Hertz, The Hidden Lincoln, 384.   James Gourley's statement to Herndon.

    “She always said that if her husband had stayed at home as he ought to that she could love him better; she is no prostitute, a good woman. She dared me once or twice to kiss her, as I thought, [I] refused [but] wouldn’t now.”

    A slightly more complete quote reads: "Lincoln and his wife got along literally well, unless Mrs. L got the devil in her; Lincoln paid no attention, would pick up one of his children and walk off, would laugh at her, pay no earthly attention to her when in that wild furious condition.   I don't think Mrs. Lincoln was as bad a woman as she is represented; she was a good friend of mine.   She always said that if her husband had stayed home as he ought to that she could love him better; she is no prostitute, a good woman.   She dared me once or twice to kiss her, as I thought, refused, wouldn't now."

  4. Author's note:   These events took place at the Institute for Sex Research almost exactly a year before I first met Kinsey and became part of the inner sanctum, but Beach's words and experiments were still very much the talk of the place in February 1948.   The same month Kinsey wrote his comments on sexual inversion into, his volume Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, pages 612-15, the last page of which contains Beach's seminal observation on inversion, namely "that the males who most often assume the female type of behavior are the ones who invariable prove to be the most rigorous copulators when they assume the more usual masculine role in coitus."   In short, inversion not only means a sex-role reversal, but when a man returns to his ordinary behavior, he is more vigorous than males without the capacity for inversion.

  5. Author's note: For readers more interested in the technical side of these issues, two extra observations apply:

    (1) The connection between inversion and sexual intensity was established by Beach as early as his 1942 paper (see Bibliography).   The nub of his finding was that inversion rides the peaks and not the troughs of the androgen curve.   Thus, when rats or dogs are castrated, their first loss is inversion (sooner than their drop in sex rate).   Conversely, when blood levels of male hormone were gradually restored to normal, so was the original behavior, with inversion being the last to return-thus the peaks versus troughs observation.

    (2) Whether or not inversion requires the presence of any homosexual element has not yet been determined.   My own guess is that it does not.   In any case, the matter still requires careful historical checking.   For instance, if a careful historical study were to turn up little if any inversion among, say, the citizens of ancient Rome (or in other societies where overt homosexuality is both ubiquitous and subject to minimal taboos), this would suggest that the connection often found in the inversion/homosexual tie in our own society is less related to sexual orientation than to the resistance against it (its taboo status).   Conversely, if inversion was found to have existed approximately as easily in Roman society as in our own, this would tend to increase the relevance of the homosexual component.

  6. Most details on Churchill's early sex life would not be known had they not been researched and revealed in an English Television documentary, Secret Lives, in the 1990s.   The Somerset Maugham detail is from Ted Morgan, Maugham: A Biography, p. 152.

    From the text: “FDR was completely heterosexual all his life, while Churchill had a homosexual history in his youth, which his mother much gossiped about. Years later, when Somerset Maugham had Churchill to dinner, he asked him point-blank if it was true. Churchill confessed to only one overt experience, with Igor Novello. Maugham asked, ‘How was it?’ Churchill replied, ‘Musical.’”

  7. Much interesting and relevant material on both Roosevelt and Churchill is particularly well detailed by Joseph E. Persico, Roosevelt's Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage.

    From the text: “Churchill and FDR held a lifelong interest in the private lives of others that bordered on utter fascination.”

  8. The estimate figured and quoted by Tony Sale for the Bletchly Park Trust in the two-hour American television documentary, NOVA: Decoding Nazi Secrets.

    From the text: “The odds of making any headway from the surface of this maze of complexity were estimated by officials at Benchley as less than one in 150 million, million, million.

  9. Hodges, Alan Turing: The Enigma, 25.

    “The most remarkable thing was his seeing that such a series should exist at all.”

    A slightly more complete quote reads: "In mathematics and science the masters wrote more approving reports, but there was always something to complain about.   In the summer of 1927, Alan showed to his mathematics teacher, a certain Randolph, some work he had done for himself.   He had found the infinite series for the 'inverse tangent function', starting from the trigonometrical formula for tan1/2x.   Randalph was appropriately amazed, and told Alan's form master that he was 'a genius.'"

  10. Hodges, Alan Turing: The Enigma, 6 (You'll be a good boy, won't you?).   Other quotes from pages 13 to 16, pages 25-33.

    “Alan always preferred his own methods to those supplied by the text book, and indeed Alan had gone his own way all the time.”

    A slightly more complete quote reads: "He found that Alan always preferred his own methods to those supplied by the text book, and indeed Alan had gone his own way all the time, making few concessions to the school system."

  11. Turing often demonstrated a kind of instant insight in math.   On January 19, 1943, when he visited secret facilities at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey devoted to the electronic technology of speech encipherment, engineers showed him a problem that had taken them a week to solve.   Turing's quick response was that it should have given them 945 codes.   When asked how he had arrived at the answer so fast, Turing simply noted that their formula boils down to 9x7x5x3.

    From the text: “It was   a feat stemming back to a handful of geniuses, Turing at the top, with a staff of ten thousand attached to the processing unit at Benchley.”

  12. Hodges, Alan Turing, 221.

    From the text: “Turing biographer Hodges described the effect of Churchill’s response as ‘electric’; he immediately ordered General Hastings Ismay, his top aide, to ‘Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this [has] been done’.”

    Quote: "This letter had an electric effect.   Immediately upon its receipt, Winston Churchill minuted to General Ismay, his principal staff officer:

    Action this day

    Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done.

                    On 18 November the chief of the secret service reported that every possible measure was being taken; though the arrangements were not then entirely completed, Blechley's needs were being met."

  13. Author's note: Shades of Lincoln's experience.   Throughout the Civil War he was repeatedly furious and disappointed when one general after the other, with no such advantage as Montgomery had, failed to follow up a vistory by wiping out a retreating army and thus ending the war (as when Lee retreated from Gettysburg).

    The "disastrous consequences all over the globe" of Montgomery's near traitorous military neglect are outlined in Hodge's Biography, Alan Turing, page 245.   Or one can hear it spelled out in greater detail in the 1999 American television documentary NOVA: Decoding Nazi Secrets.

    “We told Monty how few tanks Rommel had [down to eleven at one point] and how little gas, so he could have wiped Rommel off the face of the earth. Why he didn’t do so I simply do not know and nobody else does.”

    Quote from Hodge: "It was also the equilibrium point of the war.   It was taking far longer than expected to clear North Africa, Montgomery missing some ultra-fine chances, with disastrous consequences all over the globe.   The Russian front was still undecided.   Nothing was clear, despite the demand for unconditional surrender.   The crude 'strategic bombing' was endorsed, for want of anything better.   But the Atlantic battle, agreed at Casablanca to remain the top priority, had taken a turn.   For the first time, new Allied ship construction was exceeding losses."

  14. None of this material seems available in American reports.   Even in Joseph Persico's Roosevelt's Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage Admiral King is mentioned ten times with not a word of these facts, probably because no record of them was found.   Nor does any of this material appear in the American NOVA documentary.   For years it was sequestered in the private files of Bletchley Park, finally being released (1997-98) for use in the British documentary Station X: The Ultra Secret, the British version of Bletchley Park, the Enigma, Alan Turing, Churchill, and much else.   It contains every detail mentioned here, even Eisenhower's diary entry and original Nazi footage of the decoration of submarine crews back at the German naval base.

    From the text: “General Eisenhower confided to his diary, ‘The best way to win the war is to shoot Admiral King.’”

  15. Persico, Roosevelt's Secret War, 147-48.

    "One last warning remained.   On Sunday morning, December 7, Navy cryptographers were decrypting the last piece of the fourteen-part Japanese message, the so-called Final Memorandum, which declared that Tokyo was breaking off negotiations.   At the same time, Army cryptographers were breaking a separate instruction to Ambassador Nomura to submit the long message to the State Department at 1p.m. Washington time.   Colonel Rufus Bratton, the astute head of the Far East section of Army Intelligence, was struck by the preciseness of the hour and its unusual Sunday afternoon delivery.   To Bratton, this timing signaled a Japanese attack…Precious time was lost while Bratton tried desperately to locate General Marshall, who was off on his regular Sunday horseback ride.   Two and a half hours later, Bratton was finally explaining his interpretation of the 1 p.m. delivery to Marshall.   The Army Chief of Staff immediately fired off to commanders in the Pacific a warning that the Japanese had, in effect, presented an ultimatum and 'to be on alert accordingly.'   The message went first to Manila, next to the Panama Canal, and last to Hawaii.   'Fired off' is perhaps not the right phase regarding the Hawaii delivery since the signalmen could not get through on their military circuits, and Marshall's warning of imminent hostilities had to be sent by commercial cable.   By the time the warning reached General Short's headquarters, the skies over Pearl Harbor were dotted with Japanese planes.   The church bells announcing Sunday services were being drowned out by torpedoes exploding against Kimmel's clustered warships and by bombs destroying Short's bunched-up planes."

    A slightly more complete quote reads: "In Hawaii, the Army commander, Lieutenant General Walter Short, and the Pearl Harbor fleet commander, Admiral Kimmel, had been in possession for the previous ten days of Admiral Stark’s November 27 “war warning” that ‘an aggressive move by Japan is expected within the next few days.’   General Short had contingency plans for three conditions.   Number 1 was for a ‘defense against sabotage, espionage and subversive activities without any threat from the outside.’   Number 2 was to defend against air, surface, and submarine attack.   Number 3 required preparations for ‘a defense against all out attack.’   Short chose number 1, thereby bunching up his aircraft wingtip to wingtip and locking up guns and ammunition to protect the planes and weapons from saboteurs.   He chose this level of alert to avoid unnecessary frightening civilians with scare stories about the Army preparing for attack.   For the same reason, Admiral Kimmel, the naval commander, did not increase the state of readiness of his ships in the harbor.   The two men cannot be blamed entirely for fearing local saboteurs over foreign attackers.   The Navy Chief, Admiral Stark, while warning the Pacific fleet of ‘hostile action possible at any moment,’ had added that any measures taken ‘should be carried out so as not repeat not to alarm civil population…’   Stark was reflecting a by now embedded national conviction, fostered in no small measure by the President himself.   For the previous two years, Americans had been indoctrinated that subversion from within was the prime threat to their country.   Still, the November 27 message and supplementing War Department message to General Short sent the same day warning of ‘hostile action possible at any moment,’ though not mentioning Pearl Harbor, would seen unmistakable calls to gird for an attack from within or without.

    One last warning remained.   On Sunday morning, December 7, Navy cryptographers were decrypting the last piece of the fourteen-part Japanese message, the so-called Final Memorandum, which declared that Tokyo was breaking off negotiations.   At the same time, Army cryptographers were breaking a separate instruction to Ambassador Nomura to submit the long message to the State Department at 1p.m. Washington time.   Colonel Rufus Bratton, the astute head of the Far East section of Army Intelligence, was struck by the preciseness of the hour and its unusual Sunday afternoon delivery.   To Bratton, this timing signaled a Japanese attack at that hour, probably, he guessed, against the Philippines.   Precious time was lost while Bratton tried desperately to locate General Marshall, who was off on his regular Sunday horseback ride.   Two and a half hours later, Bratton was finally explaining his interpretation of the 1 p.m. delivery to Marshall.   The Army Chief of Staff immediately fired off to commanders in the Pacific a warning that the Japanese had, in effect, presented an ultimatum and 'to be on alert accordingly.'   The message went first to Manila, next to the Panama Canal, and last to Hawaii.   'Fired off' is perhaps not the right phase regarding the Hawaii delivery since the signalmen could not get through on their military circuits, and Marshall's warning of imminent hostilities had to be sent by commercial cable.   By the time the warning reached General Short's headquarters, the skies over Pearl Harbor were dotted with Japanese planes.   The church bells announcing Sunday services were being drowned out by torpedoes exploding against Kimmel's clustered warships and by bombs destroying Short's bunched-up planes."

  16. Author's note:   Many of Turing's problems with the police extend beyond what is relevant here but were important in his life.   He had been having an affair with a young man named Arnold, a friend of whose robbed Turing's house.   Turing reported the theft to the police, who quickly found Turing's relationship with Arnold of greater interest than theft.   Turing, feeling no homosexual guilt, naively supplied a detailed account of what he and Arnold had done in bed.   This incriminated him, and in the end he was convicted and offered a choice between imprisonment or a year-long course of treatment with female hormones to "castrate" his sexual desires.   Turing chose the hormones, with the result that he grew breasts.   Oddly enough, he seemed not to be greatly disturbed by this, though it reads like a nightmare to modern   medical opinion.   Just over a year later, however, he committed suicide by eating a cyanide laced apple.

    Some observers, noting that he did not seem particularly depressed, have questioned whether he intended to kill himself.   But two factors suggest that he did.   One, he had pre-laced the apple with cyanide.   And two, the decision could have been the result of the not unusual back-and-forth rehearsal of saving oneself versus ending it all-that is, an impulsive action far away from depression or premeditated intention.   In any case, his legal troubles and his demise just shy of age forty-two add up not only to the premature loss of a great genius, but also a major social ingratitude.

    From the text: “As it turned out, after the war police did discover his homosexuality and arrested him, which brought serious consequences.”

  17. Author's note: A seeming exception sometimes cited is Austrian spy Alfred Redl, who in 1912 accepted hush money from Russia, but who, in fact, instantly turned himself into a double agent, paying back his blackmailers by supplying them with a stream of wrong information during World War I.   For more on this and the whole psychology surrounding would be sexual blackmail. see Tripp, The Homosexual Matrix, Chapter 10, "The Politics of Homosexuality."

    From the text: “He was charged on a morals violation. Had this been wartime, ‘blackmail’ would have been the usual excuse. What an irony, since there exists not a single known instance of government-related sexual blackmail, heterosexual or homosexual.”

  18. Author’s note:    Lt. Col. Wayne Sharks, spokesman for the Language Institute, explained that it was U.S. policy to discharge anyone who was either found or known to be homosexual.   As he put it, "We just enforce that policy."   Sounds very much like what the British police said when they arrested Alan Turing for his homosexual admission with no other complaint against him-a flagrant contradiction to common sense or, indeed, to any sense.   But it is morality on the march.

    (www.spacedaily.com/news/021115215823.6huqdaux.html)

    From the text: “A few weeks before the second Gulf War, a time of great need, nine linguists, six of them Arabic speakers, two who spoke Korean, and another Chinese, were fired by America’s Bush Administration for being homosexual.”

     

All rights reserved. Copyright Estate of C.A. Tripp 2005